Approximately 1.5% of individuals will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during their lifetimes, making it overall fairly rare. There are many different causes and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer, including genetics, environment, and chance. As with most cancers, a specific cause for the great majority of pancreatic cancers cannot be identified. Rather it is likely that there are multiple factors which play a part in the development of the cancer.
Ninety-five percent of pancreatic cancers occur in the exocrine cells (called pancreatic adenocarcinoma.) A less common type of pancreatic cancer affects the hormone-producing cells, called islet cells, and is referred to as a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). You can learn more about this more rare type of pancreatic cancer here.
Some things that are known to increase the risk for pancreatic cancer are:
- Age: the risk for pancreatic cancer (and most other cancers) increases as we get older. The average age of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is age 71.
- Race: African Americans are at slightly increased risk of pancreatic cancer
- Gender: Men are slightly more likely than women to develop pancreatic cancer
- Tobacco use: Cigarette smoke is considered to be one of the strongest risk factors for pancreatic cancer and is thought to cause as many as 30% of these cancers. Smokers are twice as likely to develop pancreatic cancer compared with non-smokers. Pipe smokers and smokeless tobacco is also linked to higher chance to develop pancreatic cancer.
- Obesity: Being overweight is a risk factor for many cancers, including pancreatic cancer.
- Chemical exposure: Chemicals used in the dry cleaning and metal working industries have been associated with a higher chance of developing pancreatic cancer.
- Diabetes: Individuals with type II diabetes are at increased risk of pancreatic cancer. It is unclear if type I (pediatric-onset) diabetics are also at increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
- Pancreatitis: Chronic inflammation of the pancreas is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, particularly when a person is also a smoker; However, most people with pancreatitis still do not go on to develop pancreatic cancer.
- Cirrhosis: Scarring of the liver due to damage from chronic alcohol use or infection puts a person at increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori.) infection: This bacterial infection of the stomach as well as an increase in stomach acid may increase pancreatic cancer risk.
Factors like alcohol use, physical inactivity, coffee, and diets that are high in red meat and processed meats are all proposed risk factors for pancreatic cancer, however these are still being investigated to more fully understand their role.
Most people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer do not have a family history of this cancer, however it can appear to cluster within families. Having a close relative with pancreatic cancer can increase one’s chances of developing this disease, but this increase is likely small overall.
Genetic predisposition syndromes
As many as 10% of all pancreatic cancers may be due to a genetic risk factor and therefore it is recommended that all individuals with pancreatic cancer consider genetic counseling (NCCN 02.2019). Some hereditary predispositions to pancreatic cancer include:
Last updated on Jan 29th, 2019